The new rates will range between 5% and 28% depending on the product, with 12% and 18% as the standard.
The long-awaited changes aim to streamline the country's fragmented tax system and transform it into a single market.
Currently, everything sold in India is subject to a multitude of taxes varying from state to state.
Indian businesses have been lobbying for the countrywide tax rates as the reform is expected to reduce costs, particularly for shipping goods across state borders.
The changes mark a "significant development", said Santosh Dalvi of KPMG in India.
There has been no announcement yet, though, of which products fall into which of the tax categories.
"While one can have some guesswork around the GST rate for some of the products, the devil is in the detail when the final classification list will be released which is the most challenging task for the policy makers," said Mr Dalvi.
According to Finance Minister Arun Jaitley, half of the items in the consumer price index would not be taxed at all to protect the poor.
The index is a basket of consumer goods and services used to measure changing prices and inflation.
A central plank of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's economic agenda, the centralised tax is intended to cut through the red tape and corruption generated by the swathe of state taxes currently in force.
Currently, goods brought for example from the northern city of Haryana to Chennai are taxed in six different states.
With every state deciding its own taxes it also encourages local protectionism.
Optimistic estimates suggest the changes could bring more than 2% of added economic growth.
India already has overtaken China as the world's fastest growing economy.
Source: BBC Business News